Plants activate their immune system through intracellular signaling pathways after perceiving microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs).

Receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases mediate the intracellular signaling downstream of pattern-recognition receptors. BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1 (BSR1), a rice (Oryza sativa) receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase subfamily-VII protein, contributes to chitin-triggered immune responses. It is valuable for agriculture because its overexpression confers strong disease resistance to fungal and bacterial pathogens. However, it remains unclear how overexpressed BSR1 reinforces plant immunity. Here we analyzed immune responses using rice suspension-cultured cells and sliced leaf blades overexpressing BSR1. BSR1 overexpression enhances MAMP-triggered production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and transcriptional activation of the defense-related gene in cultured cells and leaf strips. Furthermore, the co-cultivation of leaves with conidia of the blast fungus revealed that BSR1 overexpression allowed host plants to produce detectable oxidative bursts against compatible pathogens. BSR1 was also involved in the immune responses triggered by peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide. Thus, we concluded that the hyperactivation of MAMP-triggered immune responses confers BSR1-mediated robust resistance to broad-spectrum pathogens.





Figure 6:

Proposed model in which BSR1 regulates defense responses, such as oxidative bursts, after the  perception  of  MAMPs  in  wild-type  (WT;  left)  and  BSR1-overexpressing  rice  lines (BSR1-OX; right).  PGN,  peptidoglycan;  LPS,  lipopolysaccharide;  RLPs,  receptor-like  proteins;  ROS,  reactive oxygen species; MTI, MAMP-triggered imm