Pathogen secreted cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) induce plant innate immune responses. The expression of rice transcription factor, APETALA2/Ethylene response factor-152 (OsAP2/ERF152) is enhanced in leaves upon treatment with different CWDEs and upon wounding.

Ectopic expression of OsAP2/ERF152 in Arabidopsis leads to induction of immune responses like callose deposition and upregulation of both salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) responsive defense genes. Arabidopsis transgenics expressing OsAP2/ERF152 exhibited resistance to infections caused by both bacterial and fungal pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA, respectively. Ectopic expression of OsAP2/ERF152 results in transient activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases 3/6 (MAPKs; MPK3/6) which could be leading to the induction of a broad range immunity in Arabidopsis.