In this study, the eﬀect of short heat stress (42 °C, 30 min) on indica rice plants at the grain-flling stage (dough grain stage) was found by determining their physiological and growth traits Fv/Fm, ∆F/Fm′, chlorophyll content, leaf water potential (LWP), membrane stability, relative leaf area (RLA), relative plant height (RPH), total grain weight per panicle (TGW) and 1000 GW. Thai economic rice cvs. KDML105 and Pathumthani 1 (PTT1) were compared to the heat-tolerant rice cultivars N22 and Dular and to the heat-sensitive rice cultivar IR64. The results showed that short heat stress exhibited eﬀects on physiology and growth greater than the control (35 °C, 30 min) by reducing of Fv/Fm, ∆F/Fm′, chlorophyll content, LWP, membrane stability and RLA. This result impacted the TGW and 1000 GW. A higher reduction of physiological traits was shown in IR64, followed by KDML105. In contrast, N22 and Dular were minimally aﬀected by heat stress and were able to adapt and recover based on their grain weight that exhibited less of an eﬀect. PTT1 was also impacted by heat stress similarly to Dular. Thus, short heat stress aﬀected the physiological parameters of fve rice cultivars at the dough grain stage. In addition, the fve indica rice cultivars were classifed into three groups: (1) the heat-tolerant group (N22, Dular and PTT1), (2) the moderately heat-tolerant group (KDML105), and (3) the heat-sensitive group (IR64) by PC-ORD program at 50% of similarity of the 13 physiological traits.