Hence, the objective of the present study was to fine map the first-reported resistance locus RPF1. The resistance allele at this resistance locus was effective against races 1–7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 of Peronospora farinosa f. sp. spinaciae (P. effusa). The approach fine mapped RPF1 using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-Seq) technology combined with bulked segregant analysis. A 1.72 Mb region localized on chromosome 3 was found to contain RPF1 based on association analysis. After screening recombinants with the SLAF markers within the region, the region was narrowed down to 0.89 Mb. Within this region, 14 R genes were identified based on the annotation information. To identify the genes involved in resistance, resequencing of two resistant inbred lines (12S2 and 12S3) and three susceptible inbred lines (12S1, 12S4, and 10S2) was performed. The three most likely candidate genes were identified via amino acid sequence analysis and conserved domain analysis between resistant and susceptible inbred lines. These included Spo12729, encoding a receptor-like protein, and Spo12784 and Spo12903, encoding a nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat domains. Additionally, based on the sequence variation in the three genes between the resistant and susceptible lines, molecular markers were developed for marker-assisted selection. The results could be valuable in cloning the RPF1 alleles and improving our understanding of the interaction between the host and pathogen.