The Cucurbitaceae family hosts many economically important fruit vegetables (cucurbits) such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, pumpkin/squash, and various gourds.

The cucurbits are probably best known for the diverse fruit sizes and shapes, but little is known about their genetic basis and molecular regulation. Here, we reviewed the literature on fruit size (FS), shape (FSI), and fruit weight (FW) QTL identified in cucumber, melon, and watermelon, from which 150 consensus QTL for these traits were inferred. Genome-wide survey of the three cucurbit genomes identified 253 homologs of eight classes of fruit or grain size/weight-related genes cloned in Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice that encode proteins containing the characteristic CNR (cell number regulator), CSR (cell size regulator), CYP78A (cytochrome P450), SUN, OVATE, TRM (TONNEAU1 Recruiting Motif), YABBY, and WOX domains. Alignment of the consensus QTL with candidate gene homologs revealed widespread structure and function conservation of fruit size/shape gene homologs in cucurbits, which was exemplified with the fruit size/shape candidate genes CsSUN25-26-27a and CsTRM5 in cucumber, CmOFP1a in melon, and ClSUN25-26-27a in watermelon. In cucurbits, the andromonoecy (for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase) and the carpel number (for CLAVATA3) loci are known to have pleiotropic effects on fruit shape, which may complicate identification of fruit size/shape candidate genes in these regions. The present work illustrates the power of comparative analysis in understanding the genetic architecture of fruit size/shape variation, which may facilitate QTL mapping and cloning for fruit size-related traits in cucurbits. The limitations and perspectives of this approach are also discussed.