Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the leading food crops of the world, and the safe production of rice plays a central role in ensuring food security. However, the conflicts between rice production and environmental resources are becoming increasingly acute. For this reason, scientists in China have proposed the concept of Green Super Rice for promoting resource-saving and environment-friendly rice production, while still achieving a yield increase and quality improvement. GSR is becoming one of the major goals for agricultural research and crop improvement worldwide, which aims to mine and use vital genes associated with superior agronomic traits such as high yield, good quality, nutrient efficiency, and resistance against insects and stresses; establish genomic breeding platforms to breed and apply GSR; and set up resource-saving and environment-friendly cultivation management systems. GSR has been introduced into eight African and eight Asian countries and has contributed significantly to rice cultivation and food security in these countries. This article mainly describes the GSR concept and recent research progress, as well as the significant achievements in GSR breeding and its application.
Figure 1: The target, strategy, and design for the development of Green Super Rice (GSR). a The goal of GSR was proposed to promote sustainable rice production with less inputs, while still achieving a yield increase and quality improvement. b Integration of multi-omics (phenomics, genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, metabolomics, and proteomics) to identify and understand green genes (such as high yield, good grain quality, resistance to stresses, nutrient-use efficiency). c A series of databases for rice genomic variations. d Schematic illustration of introgression lines, each containing a target gene and that could be combined in various ways to develop GSR. e The rice gene-chip and the gene-specific selection system. f Adoption of GSR varieties in various ecosystems