The objective of the present work was to develop an advanced fast phenotyping tool to explore the cashew apple compositions from different genotypes, based on a portable near-infrared (MicroNIR) spectroscopy.

This will be in addition to associating the variability of the respective cashew apple pulps with the genotypes by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The NIR analysis is a non-destructive, low-cost procedure that provides prompt results, while considering the morphology of different cashew apples (shape, size, and color). The UPLC-HRMS analysis is characterized by specific bioactive compounds, such as the derivatives of hydroxybutanoic acid, galloyl, and flavonoids. Furthermore, both techniques allowed the identification of a group of accessions, which presented similarities among the chemical profiling. However, to improve the understanding of cashew chemical and physical variability, further variables related to the cashew apple composition, such as edaphoclimatic conditions, should be considered for future studies. These approaches lead to the conclusion that these two tools are useful for the maintenance of BAG-Caju (Cashew Germplasm Bank) and for the cashew-breeding program.