Linkage-based mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genome-wide association studies are complementary approaches for deciphering the genomic architecture of complex agronomical traits. In oilseed rape, quantitative resistance to blackleg disease, caused by L. maculans, is highly polygenic and is greatly influenced by the environment. In this study, we took advantage of multi-year data available on three segregating populations derived from the resistant cv Darmor and multi-year data available on oilseed rape panels to obtain a wide overview of the genomic regions involved in quantitative resistance to this pathogen in oilseed rape. Sixteen QTL regions were common to at least two biparental populations, of which nine were the same as previously detected regions in a multi-parental design derived from different resistant parents. Eight regions were significantly associated with quantitative resistance, of which five on A06, A08, A09, C01 and C04 were located within QTL support intervals. Homoeologous Brassica napus genes were found in eight homoeologous QTL regions, which corresponded to 657 pairs of homoeologous genes. Potential candidate genes underlying this quantitative resistance were identified. Genomic predictions and breeding are also discussed, taking into account the highly polygenic nature of this resistance.