Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by Fusarium virguliforme, is a major disease of soybean [Glycine max(L.) Merr.] in the United States. Breeding for soybean resistance to SDS is the most cost-effective method to manage the disease. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying field resistance to SDS in a recombinant inbred line population from the cross GD2422×LD01-5907. This population was genotyped with 1786 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using SoySNP6 K iSelect BeadChip and evaluated for SDS resistance in a naturally infested field. Four SDS resistance QTLs were mapped on Chromosomes 4, 8, 12 and 18. The resistant parent, LD01-5907, contributed the resistance alleles for the QTLs on Chromosomes 8 and 18 (qSDS-8 and qSDS-18), while the other parent, GD2422, provided the resistance alleles for the QTLs on Chromosomes 4 and 12 (qSDS-4 and qSDS-12). The minor QTL on Chromosome 12 (qSDS-12) is novel. The QTL on Chromosomes 8 and 18 (qSDS-8 and qSDS-18) overlapped with two soybean cyst nematode resistance-related loci, Rhg4 and Rhg1, respectively. A significant interaction between qSDS-8 and qSDS-18 was detected by disease incidence. Individual effects together with the interaction effect explained around 70% of the phenotypic variance. The epistatic interaction of qSDS-8 and qSDS-18 was confirmed by the field performance across multiple years. Furthermore, the resistance alleles at qSDS-8 and qSDS-18 were demonstrated to be recessive. The SNP markers linked to these QTLs will be useful for marker-assisted breeding to enhance the SDS resistance.