however, neither the QTLs common to each population nor the candidate genes underlying them have been identified due to the limitations of each approach used. Here, we performed QTL mapping and GWAS for capsaicinoid content in peppers using two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations and one GWAS population. Whole-genome resequencing and genotyping by sequencing (GBS) were used to construct high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps. Five QTL regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 10 were commonly identified in both RIL populations over multiple locations and years. Furthermore, a total of 109 610 SNPs derived from two GBS libraries were used to analyse the GWAS population consisting of 208 C. annuum -clade accessions. A total of 69 QTL regions were identified from the GWAS, 10 of which were co-located with the QTLs identified from the two biparental populations. Within these regions, we were able to identify five candidate genes known to be involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis. Our results demonstrate that QTL mapping and GBS-GWAS represent a powerful combined approach for the identification of loci controlling complex traits.