Diseases caused by bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens constantly threaten the rice production and lead to enormous yield losses. Bacterial blight (BB) and bacterial leaf streak (BLS), caused respectively by gram-negative bacteria Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), are two important diseases affecting rice production worldwide. Due to the economic importance, extensive genetic and genomic studies have been conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanism of rice response to Xoo and Xoc in the last two decades. A series of resistance (R) genes and their cognate avirulence and virulence effector genes have been characterized. Here, we summarize the recent advances in studies on interactions between rice and the two pathogens through these R genes or their products and effectors. Breeding strategies to develop varieties with durable and broad-spectrum resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae based on the published studies are also discussed.